The thyroid gland sits at the front of the neck beneath the Adam’s apple. It comprises two lobes, which wrap around the windpipe in a butterfly shape. The thyroid absorbs iodine from the diet to produce hormones that regulate metabolism. The main hormones are T3 and T4. These hormones regulate the speed at which food is broken down and converted to energy. They also influence body temperature, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, energy levels and mood.
The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized glands in the neck. They are normally found in pairs on each side of the neck adjacent to the thyroid gland. Their function is unrelated to the thyroid gland and they share the name only because of their location; ‘para’ is derived from the Greek for ‘beside’: para(beside)thyroid.
Gallstone disease is a common indication for removal of the gallbladder (in order to prevent life threatening complications such as: pancreatitis, jaundice, cholangitis). The procedure, known as cholecystectomy, is performed by keyhole laparoscopic surgery.
Hernias occur due to a weakness or tear in the surrounding structure of an organ or body tissue. This defect allows organs and tissue to bulge, or herniate, into another area of the body. There are several different types of hernias but the surgical treatment of them all relies on the same principle of restoring everything in its proper place and repairing the hole. The aim of hernia surgery is to prevent life-threatening bowel strangulation and therefore avoid emergency surgery.